Paediatric-History taking and physical examination of mental retardation/ Intellectual disability (ID)

Paediatric-History taking and physical examination of mental retardation/ Intellectual disability (ID)Created OnApril 21, 2020Last Updated OnApril 21, 2020byadmin You are here: Main Clinical Examination Paediatric-History taking and physical examination of mental retardation/ Intellectual disability (ID) < All Topics Table of Contents History taking: Ask about patient’s data: Name, age, gender Ask about history of presenting illness Age of onset? Any behavioural or psychopathological disturbances? Ask about antenatal history Antenatal screening for genetic disorders? Antenatal screening found congenital malformation history of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) Maternal alcohol, illicit drugs intake Exposure to lead or radiation Congenital/maternal infection History of miscarriages, stillbirths, early childhood death Ask about birth history Gestational age at birth Microcephaly/hydrocephaly Birth weight Birth trauma HIE Ask about past medical history History of inborn error of metabolism, meningitis, encephalitis Detected abnormalities of brain development – by neuroimaging History of chromosomal disorder, seizure disorder, thyroid disease (hypothyroid), head trauma (accidental/ non accidental) Ask about drug history Is the child taking any medications? Any drug allergies? Ask about developmental history Any developmental delay? Ask about immunization history Ask about feeding history Any feeding problem? Ask about family history Family history of ID, genetic disorders, congenital malformation, psychiatric disorders Family history of autism spectrum disorder Ask about social history Parental consanguinity? Where is the child staying? Who is the child staying with? Financial status of parents/carer History of child abuse/neglect? Physical examination: Vital signs: blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, SpO2, temperature Anthropometric measurement: height, weight, BMI, head circumference General Stature Short stature – malnutrition, Turner’s syndrome, Noonan’s syndrome Obese – Prader-Willi syndrome Tall stature – Sotos syndrome, homocystinuria Head size Macrocephaly – Sotos syndrome, hydrocephalus Microcephaly – foetal alcohol syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, malnutrition Face: features of dysmorphism? Eye Strabismus – fragile X syndrome Cataract – prenatal rubella, hypothyroidism Chorioretinitis – congenital infection with CMV, toxoplasmosis, rubella Brushfield spots – Down syndrome Hyperterorism/ hypotelorism Lisch nodules Blue sclera – osteogenesis imperfecta Ear Low set ears Malformed pinnae Large, prominent – Fragile X syndrome Skin (neurocutaneous lesions) Cafe au lait spots, neurofibroma – neurofibromatosis Facial port-wine haemangioma –...

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